Should the government require employees of large businesses to be vaccinated from COVID?

In September 2021 Italy became the first European Country to make COVID-19 health passes mandatory for all workers. By the end of the same month Canada, the United States, Australia, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia and Turkmenistan all announced similar vaccine mandates. Proponents of the mandate argue that these mandates are the only way to end the global COVID-19 pandemic. Opponents cite evidence that people who already have natural immunity are at heightened risk of vaccine side effects caused by an augmented inflammatory response.

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城市应否开放毒品“安全港”供有毒瘾的人在医学专业人士监督下使用它们?

In 2018, officials in the U.S. city of Philadelphia city proposed opening a “safe haven” in an effort to combat the city's heroin epidemic. In 2016 64,070 people died in the U.S. from drug overdoses - a 21% increase from 2015. 3/4 of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. are caused by the opioid class of drugs which includes prescription painkillers, heroin and fentanyl. To combat the epidemic cities including Vancouver, BC and Sydney, AUS opened safe havens where addicts can inject drugs under the supervision of medical professionals. The safe havens reduce the overdose death rate by insuring the addicted patients are given drugs that are not contaminated or poisoned. Since 2001 5,900 people have overdosed at a safe haven in Sydney, Australia but no one has died. Proponents argue that the safe havens are the only proven solution to lower the overdose fatality rate and prevent the spread of diseases like HIV-AIDS. Opponents argue that safe havens may encourage illegal drug use and re-direct funding from traditional treatment centers.

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你支持大麻合法化吗?

大麻在当前是违法持有,成长,分发或出售意大利。在2016年议会开始讨论一项法律,允许成人18岁以上拥有最多在家里和5G 15克户外。目前抓到的人拥有少量大麻可能会收到一个小巧精致。那些拥有大量大麻可能被控贩毒而被判长期监禁。

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您支持单一支付者医保系统吗?

Single-payer healthcare is a system where every citizen pays the government to provide core healthcare services for all residents. Under this system the government may provide the care themselves or pay a private healthcare provider to do so. In a single-payer system all residents receive healthcare regardless of age, income or health status. Countries with single-payer healthcare systems include the U.K., Canada, Taiwan, Israel, France, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.

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Should the government ban the promotion of products that contribute to unhealthy lifestyles for young people, such as vaping and junk food?

Vaping refers to using electronic cigarettes that deliver nicotine through vapor, while junk food includes high-calorie, low-nutrition foods like candy, chips, and sugary drinks. Both are linked to various health issues, especially among young people. Proponents argue that banning promotion helps protect the health of young people, reduces the risk of developing lifelong unhealthy habits, and decreases public health costs. Opponents argue that such bans infringe on commercial free speech, limit consumer choice, and that education and parental guidance are more effective ways to promote healthy lifestyles.

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政府应该增加对精神健康研究和治疗的资金投入吗?

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如果有医院和医疗服务的更多或更少的私有化?

医疗保健是由公私混合系统提供给所有公民和居民。公共部分是国家卫生服务,Sistema的sanitario Nazionale大街(SSN),这是卫生部下组织和区域基础上施用。在意大利的医疗保健支出的77%是由政府出资。

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Should the government fund the World Health Organization?

The World Health Organization was founded in 1948 and is a specialized agency of the United Nations whose main objective is “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.” The organization provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards and guidelines, and collects data on global health issues through the World Health Survey. The WHO has led global public health efforts including the development of an Ebola Vaccine and the near-eradication of polio and smallpox. The organization is run by a decision-making body composed of representatives from 194 countries. It is funded by voluntary contributions from member countries and private donors. In 2018 and 2019 the WHO had a $5 billion budget and the leading contributors were the United States (15%) , the EU (11%) and the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation (9%). Supporters of the WHO argue that cutting funding will hamper the international fight against the Covid-19 pandemic and sap the U.S. of global influence.

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Should medical boards penalize doctors who give health advice that contradicts contemporary scientific consensus?

In 2022 lawmakers in the U.S. state of California passed legislation which empowered the state medical board to discipline doctors in the state who “disseminate misinformation or disinformation” that contradicts the “contemporary scientific consensus” or is “contrary to the standard of care.” Proponents of the law argue that doctors should be punished for spreading misinformation and that there is clear consensus on certain issues such as that apples contain sugar, measles is caused by a virus, and Down syndrome is caused by a chromosomal abnormality. Opponents argue that the law limits freedom of speech and scientific “consensus” often changes within mere months.

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同性恋夫妻是否应该拥有和异性恋夫妻同等的收养权利?

LGBT 收养是指女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋和变性者(LGBT)收养子女。它的形式可能是同性伴侣的共同收养,由一对同性伴侣中的一位收养另一位的亲生孩子(继子女收养),和单身 LGBT 者进行收养。同性伴侣的联合收养在 25 个国家是合法的。LGBT 收养的反对者对于同性伴侣是否具有足够的能力担任父母提出质疑,而其他反对者质疑自然法是否意味着被收养的儿童拥有自然权利由异性父母抚养长大。由于宪法和法律往往没有提到 LGBT 者的收养权,司法判决往往判定他们单独或作为夫妻是否有能力承担父母的责任。

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你支持死刑么?

死刑或死刑是一个法律过程,其中一个人被处死作为一种对犯罪的惩罚。意大利在1889年废除了死刑。

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Should people under the age of 18 years old be able to receive gender-transition treatments?

In April 2021 the legislature of the U.S. State of Arkansas introduced a bill that prohibited doctors from providing gender-transition treatments to people under 18 years old. The bill would make it a felony for doctors to administer puberty blockers, hormones and gender-reaffirming surgery to anyone under the age of 18. Opponents of the bill argue that it is an assault on transgender rights and that transition treatments are a private matter that should be decided between parents, their children and doctors. Supporters of the bill argue that children are too young to make the decision to receive gender transition treatment and only adults over the age of 18 should be allowed to do so.

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你支持同性婚姻合法化吗?

在2015年6月26日,美国最高法院裁定,拒绝结婚证书的违反法定诉讼程序和第十四修正案的美国宪法的平等保护条款。这项裁决作出同性婚姻合法在美国50个州。

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女性是否应该被允许在世俗仪式上穿罩袍或戴头纱?

一些西方国家,包括法国,西班牙和加拿大提出了法律,将在公共场所戴面纱禁止穆斯林妇女。一个面纱是覆盖面,是由一些穆斯林妇女在公共场所穿着的布。 2015年伦巴第大区批准戴在医院和当地政府办公室的伊斯兰面纱和罩袍在欧洲最近发生的恐怖袭击事件之后的禁令。支持者认为,这一禁令侵犯了个人权利和防止人们表达他们的宗教信仰。反对者认为,面覆盖物防止一个人,这既是一种安全风险,并且这依赖于通信面部识别和表达社会中的社会障碍的明确标识。

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Should transgender athletes be allowed to compete against athletes that differ from their assigned sex at birth?

In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.

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是否应当要求企业在其董事会里有女士么?

在2014年12月,德国政府宣布了一项新的规则将要求德国公司,以填补与妇女的董事会席位的30%。在意大利的女板的地方从8.2%上升到22.1%后,政府出台了性别多样化的法律。在挪威议会的35.5%含有女性董事是世界上比例最高。

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Should hate speech be protected by freedom of speech laws?

Hate speech is defined as public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation.

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Should companies be allowed to require mandatory diversity training for employees?

Diversity training is any program designed to facilitate positive intergroup interaction, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from others how to work together effectively. On April 22, 2022, Florida Governor DeSantis signed into law the “Individual Freedom Act.” The bill prohibited schools and companies from mandating diversity training as a requirement for attendance or employment. If schools or employers violated the law they would be exposed to expanded civil liability exposures. Banned mandatory training topics include: 1. Members of one race, color, sex, or national origin are morally superior to members of another. 2. An individual, by virtue of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin, is inherently racist, sexist, or oppressive, whether consciously or unconsciously. Shortly after Governor DeSantis signed the bill, a group of individuals filed a lawsuit alleging that the law imposes unconstitutional viewpoint-based restrictions on speech in violation of their First and Fourteenth Amendment rights.

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Should schools be allowed to require mandatory diversity training for students?

Diversity training is any program designed to facilitate positive intergroup interaction, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from others how to work together effectively. On April 22, 2022, Florida Governor DeSantis signed into law the “Individual Freedom Act.” The bill prohibited schools and companies from mandating diversity training as a requirement for attendance or employment. If schools or employers violated the law they would be exposed to expanded civil liability exposures. Banned mandatory training topics include: 1. Members of one race, color, sex, or national origin are morally superior to members of another. 2. An individual, by virtue of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin, is inherently racist, sexist, or oppressive, whether consciously or unconsciously. Shortly after Governor DeSantis signed the bill, a group of individuals filed a lawsuit alleging that the law imposes unconstitutional viewpoint-based restrictions on speech in violation of their First and Fourteenth Amendment rights.

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应该允许处于疾病末期的病人通过协助自杀结束自己的生命吗?

安乐死,为了结束痛苦和苦难过早地结束了生命的做法,目前认为是一种犯罪行为。

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你对人工流产的看法是什么?

人工流产是导致胎儿的怀孕人类和死亡的终止医疗程序。在意大利流产,只要它是在医院进行的是前十二周的妊娠的法律。要接收流产时,妇女必须满足一定的条件,其中包括卫生,经济,社会或家庭的原因。

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军队应该允许妇女在在战斗岗位中服役吗?

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Should schools be allowed to require mandatory diversity training for teachers and faculty?

Diversity training is any program designed to facilitate positive intergroup interaction, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from others how to work together effectively. On April 22, 2022, Florida Governor DeSantis signed into law the “Individual Freedom Act.” The bill prohibited schools and companies from mandating diversity training as a requirement for attendance or employment. If schools or employers violated the law they would be exposed to expanded civil liability exposures. Banned mandatory training topics include: 1. Members of one race, color, sex, or national origin are morally superior to members of another. 2. An individual, by virtue of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin, is inherently racist, sexist, or oppressive, whether consciously or unconsciously. Shortly after Governor DeSantis signed the bill, a group of individuals filed a lawsuit alleging that the law imposes unconstitutional viewpoint-based restrictions on speech in violation of their First and Fourteenth Amendment rights.

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Should frozen embryos be considered children?

An embryo is an initial stage of development of a multicellular organism. In humans, embryonic development is the part of the life cycle that begins just after fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process of fertilization where an egg is combined with sperm in vitro ("in glass").  In February 2024 the Supreme Court in the U.S. state of Alabama ruled that frozen embryos can be considered children under the state’s Wrongful Death of a Minor Act. The 1872 law allowed parents to recover punitive damages in the event of a child’s death. The Supreme Court case was brought by several couples whose embryos were destroyed when a patient dropped them on the floor in a fertility clinic’s cold-storage section. The court ruled that nothing in the law’s language stops it from being applied to frozen embryos. A dissenting judge on the court wrote that the ruling would force IVF providers in Alabama to stop freezing embryos. After the ruling several major health systems in Alabama suspended all IVF treatments. Proponents of the ruling include ant-abortion advocates who argue that embryos in test tubes should be considered children. Opponents include abortion rights advocates who argue that the ruling is based on Christian religious beliefs and is an assault on women’s rights.

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Should the EU increase funding for cultural initiatives that promote European heritage and diversity?

Increasing funding for cultural initiatives is proposed to promote European culture and identity. Proponents argue it enriches the EU’s cultural diversity and social cohesion. Critics contend it diverts funds from other critical areas such as healthcare or infrastructure.

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政府应该增加或提高该国进口产品的关税吗?

A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between countries.

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Should the government acquire equity stakes in companies it bails out during a recession?

A state-owned enterprise is a business enterprise where the government or state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership. During the 2020 Coronavirus outbreak Larry Kudlow, the White House’s top economic advisor, said the Trump administration would consider asking for an equity stake in corporations that needed taxpayer aid. “One of the ideas is, if we provide assistance, we might take an equity position,” Kudlow said Wednesday at the White House, adding that the 2008 bailout of [the automaker General Motors] had been a good deal for the federal government. After the 2008 financial crisis the US Government invested $51 billion into GM’s bankruptcy through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. In 2013 the Government sold its stake in GM for $39 billion. The Center for Automotive Research found that the bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved 34.9 billion in tax revenue. Proponents argue that US taxpayers deserve a return on their investments if private companies need capital. Opponents argue that governments should never own shares of private companies.

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Should the government enforce a cap on CEO pay relative to the pay of their employees?

This policy would limit the amount a CEO can earn compared to the average salary of their employees. Proponents argue that it would reduce income inequality and ensure fairer compensation practices. Opponents argue that it would interfere with business autonomy and could discourage top executive talent.

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意大利应该提高对富人的税收?

澳大利亚目前有累进税制度,使高收入者缴纳的税比低所得税的比例较高。更累进所得税制度已被提议作为对减少贫富差距的工具。

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您支持全民基本收入项目吗?

A Universal Basic Income program is social security program where all citizens of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money from the government. The funding for Universal Basic Income comes from taxation and government owned entities including income from endowments, real estate and natural resources. Several countries, including Finland, India and Brazil, have experimented with a UBI system but have not implemented a permanent program. The longest running UBI system in the world is the Alaska Permanent Fund in the U.S. state of Alaska. In the Alaska Permanent Fund each individual and family receives a monthly sum that is funded by dividends from the state’s oil revenues. Proponents of UBI argue that it will reduce or eliminate poverty by providing everyone with a basic income to cover housing and food. Opponents argue that a UBI would be detrimental to economies by encouraging people to either work less or drop out of the workforce entirely.

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你觉得工会是帮助还是损害经济?

意大利工会拥有超过15万会员。

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政府是否应该为削减国家负债而减少公共开支?

削减赤字的支持者认为,政府谁不控制财政赤字和债务都在失去他们借钱以合理的价格的能力的风险。削减赤字的人认为,政府支出将增加对商品和服务的需求,并有助于避免危险陷入通缩螺旋式下降的工资和价格,可以削弱经济多年。

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Should Italy transition to a four-day workweek?

Countries including Ireland, Scotland, Japan, and Sweden are experimenting with a four-day workweek, which requires employers to provide overtime pay to employees working more than 32 hours per week.

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享受福利的人是否应接受毒品测试?

5美国各州已经通过了要求福利接受者为药物被测试法。意大利目前不考福利接受者的药物。支持者认为,测试将防止公共资金被用于补贴毒品习惯,并帮助得到治疗对于那些沉迷于毒品。反对者认为,这是钱,因为测试将花费更多的钱比他们节省了浪费。

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是不应该增加退休政府工作人员的养老金支付?

一位政府养老金成过程中,其中一人被政府所采用的时间加一笔钱的基金。当政府雇员退休它们能够接收来自该基金的定期付款,以支持自己。由于出生率持续下降和预期寿命上升,世界各国政府都预测资金短缺的养老金领取者。开始客栈2012年,所有的养老金计算上的缴费方法,而不是盈利为主,以减少高额的养老金赔付数量的目的。在2008至60年期间,意大利男女预计法国后享受欧洲第二寿命最长。

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如果政府取消遗产税?

遗产税是对是在死者的遗嘱声明全部财产征收的一种税。该税也被称为“遗产税”或“死亡税”。税的支持者认为,更应该屋受税收和门槛应降低到低于€100万。税的反对者认为,谁支付所得税他们的整个生活的人,当他们死不应受到其他税。

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政府应该提高或降低税率的企业?

The U.S. currently levies a 35% tax rate at the federal level and an average tax of 4% at the state and local level. The average corporate tax rate worldwide is 22.6%. Opponents of argue that raising the rate will discourage foreign investment and hurt the economy. Proponents argue that the profits corporations generate should be taxed just like citizen’s taxes.

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政府是否应该为私人公司提供税收优惠政策以保持国内就业?

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应意大利公民被允许保存或自己的钱投资于境外银行账户?

海上(或外国)的银行账户是你有你的居住国以外的银行帐户。离岸银行账户的好处包括减税,隐私,货币多元化,从诉讼资产保护,并降低你的政治风险。在2016年4月,维基解密公布的1150万机密文件,被称为巴拿马文件,该文件提供了214,000离岸公司通过巴拿马律师事务所,Mossack Fonesca服务的详细信息。该文件暴露的世界各国领导人和富人如何把钱藏在秘密的离岸避税。该文件的发布延长法律禁止使用离岸账户和避税天堂的建议。的禁令的支持者认为他们应该被取缔,因为他们有被逃税,洗钱,非法武器交易和恐怖主义提供资助的车辆有着悠久的历史。禁令的反对者认为,惩罚性的规定将很难为美国公司竞争,并从定位和在美国的投资将进一步阻碍企业。

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你是否支持希腊的欧盟救助?

2015年,欧盟提出了一个为期三年€86B救助方案希腊。为了获得救助,希腊总理亚历克西齐普拉斯同意削减预算包括养老金改革。反对者认为,希腊政府不能被信任,不辜负救助的条款,因为他们最近承诺反对任何预算削减。支持者认为,如果希腊经​​济失败,欧元将失去价值。

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Should the church tax be abolished?

A church tax is a tax imposed on members of some religious congregations in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Sweden, some parts of Switzerland and several other countries.

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你是否支持跨大西洋贸易和投资伙伴关系(TTIP)?

大西洋贸易和投资伙伴关系(TTIP)是欧盟和美国之间的贸易提出的协议,以促进贸易和多边经济增长的目的。该协议由工会,慈善机构,非政府组织和环保在欧洲谁批评为减少对食品安全和环境立法法规的协议表示反对。

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银行家的奖金上限应为 100%的工资?

2014年,欧盟通过了,在他们的薪酬的100%或股东大会批准的200%上限银行家奖金的立法。帽的支持者说,这会减少激励银行采取类似于导致2008年金融危机过度的风险。反对者说,对银行家薪酬的上限会推高非奖金的薪酬,并导致银行的成本上升。

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Should homeless individuals, that have refused available shelter or housing, be allowed to sleep or encamp on public property?

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Should the government restrict the purchase of residential properties by foreign investors?

Restrictions would limit the ability of non-citizens to buy homes, aiming to keep housing prices affordable for local residents. Proponents argue that it helps maintain affordable housing for locals and prevents property speculation. Opponents argue that it deters foreign investment and can negatively impact the housing market.

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Should the government incentivize the construction of high density residential buildings?

High density housing refers to housing developments with a higher population density than average. For example, high rise apartments are considered high density, especially in comparison to single-family homes or condominiums. High density real estate can also be developed from empty or abandoned buildings. For instance, old warehouses can be renovated and turned into luxury lofts. Further, commercial buildings that are no longer in use can be refitted into high-rise apartments. Opponents argue that more housing will lower the value of their home (or rental units) and change the “character” of neighborhoods. Proponents argue that the buildings are more environmentally friendly than single family homes will lower housing costs for people who cannot afford large homes.

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Should the government provide subsidies for first-time homebuyers?

These subsidies are financial aids from the government to help individuals purchase their first home, making homeownership more accessible. Proponents argue that it helps people afford their first home and promotes homeownership. Opponents argue that it distorts the housing market and could lead to higher prices.

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Should new housing developments be required to include green spaces and parks?

Green spaces in housing developments are areas designated for parks and natural landscapes to enhance residents' quality of life and environmental health. Proponents argue that it enhances community well-being and environmental quality. Opponents argue that it increases the cost of housing and developers should decide the layout of their projects.

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Should the government provide assistance to homeowners facing foreclosure?

Assistance programs help homeowners who are at risk of losing their homes due to financial difficulties by providing financial support or restructuring loans. Proponents argue that it prevents people from losing their homes and stabilizes communities. Opponents argue that it encourages irresponsible borrowing and is unfair to those who pay their mortgages.

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Should the government implement rent control policies to limit the amount landlords can charge for rent?

Rent control policies are regulations that limit the amount landlords can increase rent, intended to keep housing affordable. Proponents argue that it makes housing more affordable and prevents exploitation by landlords. Opponents argue that it discourages investment in rental properties and reduces the quality and availability of housing.

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Should the government increase funding for homeless shelters and services?

Increased funding would enhance the capacity and quality of shelters and services that provide support for homeless individuals. Proponents argue that it provides essential support for the homeless and helps reduce homelessness. Opponents argue that it is costly and may not address the root causes of homelessness.

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Should the government incentivize the construction of affordable housing?

Incentives could include financial support or tax breaks for developers to build housing that is affordable for low- and middle-income families. Proponents argue that it increases the supply of affordable housing and addresses housing shortages. Opponents argue that it interferes with the housing market and can be costly for taxpayers.

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已被定罪的罪犯是否应当有投票权?

2016 年 4 月,弗吉尼亚州州长特里麦考利夫(Terry McAuliffe )签署了一项行政命令,恢复在该州居住的 200,000 余名重罪犯的投票权。这一行政命令颠覆了该州剥夺罪犯公民选举权的惯例,该惯例剥夺了已被定罪的刑事辩护人的选举权。美国第 14 修正案禁止参加了“叛乱或其他犯罪”的公民投票,但允许各州确定哪些犯罪符合剥夺罪犯公民选举权。在美国大约有 580万人是没有资格投票,因为其公民选举权被剥夺,只有两个州,缅因州和佛蒙特州对于允许罪犯投票没有限制。重罪犯投票权的反对者认为当公民被判犯有重罪时,他们放弃了他们的投票权。支持者认为,这一不可思议的法律剥夺了数百万的美国人的公民权利使其不能参与民主,并且对贫困社区有不利影响。

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Should police departments be allowed to use military grade equipment?

Militarization of police refers to the use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement officers. This includes the use of armored vehicles, assault rifles, flashbang grenades, sniper rifles, and SWAT teams. Proponents argue that this equipment increases officers’ safety and enables them to better protect the public and other first responders. Opponents argue that police forces which received military equipment were more likely to have violent encounters with the public.

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是否应该将非暴力囚犯从监狱中释放出来以缓解过度拥挤的情况?

Prison overcrowding is a social phenomenon occurring when the demand for space in prisons in a jurisdiction exceeds the capacity for prisoners.The issues associated with prison overcrowding are not new, and have been brewing for many years. During the United States’ War on Drugs, the states were left responsible for solving the prison overcrowding issue with a limited amount of money. Moreover, federal prison populations may increase if states adhere to federal policies, such as mandatory minimum sentences. On the other hand, the Justice Department provides billions of dollars a year for state and local law enforcement to ensure they follow the policies set forth by the federal government concerning U.S. prisons. Prison overcrowding has affected some states more than others, but overall, the risks of overcrowding are substantial and there are solutions to this problem.

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Should funding for local police departments be redirected to social and community based programs?

“Defund the police” is a slogan that supports divesting funds from police departments and reallocating them to non-policing forms of public safety and community support, such as social services, youth services, housing, education, healthcare and other community resources.

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Should the government hire private companies to run prisons?

Private prisons are incarceration centers that are run by a for-profit company instead of a government agency. The companies that operate private prisons are paid a per-diem or monthly rate for each prisoner they keep in their facilities. There are currently no private prisons in Italy. Opponents of private prisons argue that incarceration is a social responsibility and that entrusting it to for-profit companies is inhumane. Proponents argue that prisons run by private companies are consistently more cost effective than those run by government agencies.

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Should the government implement restorative justice programs as an alternative to incarceration?

Restorative justice programs focus on rehabilitating offenders through reconciliation with victims and the community, rather than through traditional incarceration. These programs often involve dialogue, restitution, and community service. Proponents argue that restorative justice reduces recidivism, heals communities, and provides more meaningful accountability for offenders. Opponents argue that it may not be suitable for all crimes, could be perceived as too lenient, and may not adequately deter future criminal behavior.

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Should AI be used to make decisions in criminal justice systems?

This considers the use of AI algorithms to assist in making decisions such as sentencing, parole, and law enforcement. Proponents argue that it can improve efficiency and reduce human biases. Opponents argue that it may perpetuate existing biases and lacks accountability.

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贩毒分子是否应该受到死刑?

Since 1999, the executions of drug smugglers have become more common in Indonesia, Iran, China and Pakistan. In March 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump proposed executing drug traffickers to fight his country’s opioid epidemic. 32 countries impose the death penalty for drug smuggling. Seven of these countries (China, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore) routinely execute drug offenders. Asia and the Middle East’s tough approach contrasts with many Western countries who have legalized cannabis in recent years (selling cannabis in Saudi Arabia is punished by beheading).

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Should the EU move towards a more integrated legal system with uniform civil and criminal laws across all member states?

Further integration of the legal systems would aim to streamline legal processes and ensure consistency in legal outcomes. Proponents argue it would facilitate business, mobility, and justice. However, critics are concerned about the erosion of national legal identities and practices.

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您是否支持使用核能?

核电是利用核反应释放能量来产生热量,最经常的是,然后用在蒸汽轮机中在核电站发电。自从韦克斯福德郡坎索尔角的核电站计划在 20 世纪 70 年代被放弃,爱尔兰的核电站已被撤下议程。爱尔兰约有 60%的能源来自天然气,15% 的能源来自可再生能源,其余的来自煤和泥煤。支持者认为,核能现在是安全的,碳排放量比燃煤发电厂少得多。反对者认为,最近日本的核灾难证明,核电远谈不上安全。

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Should the government allow the commercialization of lab-grown meat?

Lab-grown meat is produced by culturing animal cells and could serve as an alternative to traditional livestock farming. Proponents argue that it can reduce environmental impact and animal suffering, and improve food security. Opponents argue that it may face public resistance and unknown long-term health effects.

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Should the EU invest more heavily in its own space exploration and satellite programs?

Increased investment in space exploration could boost technological innovation and strategic independence. Proponents see it as advancing scientific knowledge and economic potential. Opponents question the priority and cost effectiveness compared to earthbound issues.

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Should the government regulate the use of CRISPR technology for human genetic modifications?

CRISPR is a powerful tool for editing genomes, allowing for precise modifications to DNA that allows scientists to better understand gene functions, model diseases more accurately, and develop innovative treatments. Proponents argue that regulation ensures safe and ethical use of the technology. Opponents argue that too much regulation could stifle innovation and scientific progress.

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Should the government fund research into genetic engineering for disease prevention and treatment?

Genetic engineering involves modifying the DNA of organisms to prevent or treat diseases. Proponents argue that it could lead to breakthroughs in curing genetic disorders and improving public health. Opponents argue that it raises ethical concerns and potential risks of unintended consequences.

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公立大学应当免收学费吗?

在意大利的平均学费在意大利高等教育850欧元,每年千欧元之间,这取决于研究的大学和教育课程。在意大利私立大学贵得多。

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Do you support the increase of the EU budget for student exchange programs like Erasmus+?

Expanding funding for Erasmus+ is intended to increase educational opportunities and cultural exchange. Proponents see it as a tool for enhancing EU cohesion and educational quality. Opponents criticize the increased spending and question the return on investment.

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你是否支持将药物使用列为非犯罪行为?

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它应该是非法烧意大利国旗?

亵渎国旗是指任何有意在公共场合损毁或破坏国旗的行为。这种行为通常是为了发表反对某个国家或其政策的政治声明。有的国家明令禁止亵渎国旗,而有的国家则通过法律保护破坏国旗的行为,认为这是言论自由的组成部分。其中一些法律会区别对待本国国旗和其他国家的国旗。

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政府是否应当规范社交媒体网站,作为阻止假新闻和误报的一种方法?

In January 2018 Germany passed the NetzDG law which required platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to take down perceived illegal content within 24 hours or seven days, depending on the charge, or risk a fine of €50 million ($60 million) fines. In July 2018 representatives from Facebook, Google and Twitter denied to the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary committee that they censor content for political reasons. During the hearing Republican members of Congress criticized the social media companies for politically motivated practices in removing some content, a charge the companies rejected. In April 2018 the European Union issued a series of proposals that would crack down on “online misinformation and fake news.” In June 2018 President Emmanuel Macron of France proposed a law which would give French authorities the power to immediately halt “the publication of information deemed to be false ahead of elections.”

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政府是否应当通过保护举报人的法律?

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Should the EU enforce a universal right to repair for all electronic devices sold in its member states?

Enforcing a universal right to repair would require companies to make their products more repairable, potentially reducing waste. Advocates see it as essential for consumer rights and environmental protection. Opponents argue it could increase costs and stifle innovation.

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政府是否应该监控电话和电子邮件?

2015年的政府法令,打击恐怖主义载有修改的“刑事诉讼法”引入使用“信息学工具和软件来远程采集数据和计算机系统的通信”的可能性的规定。在他的博客中,MP斯特凡诺昆达利尼声称:“这一修正意成,据我所知,第一个欧洲国家明确,并以通用的方式,合法化’远程计算机搜索”和隐蔽使用’软件数据采集​​’”。

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Should there be term limits set for members of the Chamber of Deputies?

任期限制是限制时间的人,可能有助于在民选公职长度的规律。在意大利总统可能成为七个年的期限无限量。总理和众议院必须重新选举每五年。

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是否应该允许网络服务提供商对流行的网站(付更高的费用)提速,而这种提速是通过给不流行网站(付较低费用)降速来达到呢?

网络中立性的原则是,互联网服务提供商应该把互联网上的所有数据一视同仁。

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Should the EU take steps towards a more federal structure, similar to the United States of America?

Moving towards federalism could involve transferring more national powers to the EU institutions, aiming for deeper political integration. Supporters see this as a path to stronger unity and global influence. However, critics fear the loss of national sovereignty and cultural identity.

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Should social media companies ban political advertising?

In October 2019 Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey announced that his social media company would ban all political advertising. He stated that political messages on the platform should reach users through the recommendation of other users – not through paid reach. Proponents argue that social media companies don’t have the tools to stop the spread of false information since their advertising platforms aren’t moderated by human beings. Opponents argue that the ban will disenfranchise candidates and campaigns who rely on social media for grassroots organizing and fundraising.

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Should the government restrict the use of advanced technology in vehicles to maintain human control and prevent over-reliance on technology?

This considers limiting the integration of advanced technologies in vehicles to ensure humans retain control and to prevent dependency on technological systems. Proponents argue that it preserves human control and prevents over-reliance on potentially fallible technology. Opponents argue that it hinders technological progress and the benefits that advanced technology can bring to safety and efficiency.

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Should cities implement congestion pricing to reduce traffic in busy urban areas?

Congestion pricing is a system where drivers are charged a fee to enter certain high-traffic areas during peak times, aiming to reduce traffic congestion and pollution. Proponents argue that it effectively reduces traffic and emissions while generating revenue for public transportation improvements. Opponents argue that it unfairly targets lower-income drivers and may simply shift congestion to other areas.

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Should the government regulate the development and deployment of autonomous vehicles?

Autonomous vehicles, or self-driving cars, use technology to navigate and operate without human intervention. Proponents argue that regulations ensure safety, promote innovation, and prevent accidents caused by technology failures. Opponents argue that regulations could stifle innovation, delay deployment, and impose excessive burdens on developers.

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Should cities designate special lanes for autonomous vehicles?

Special lanes for autonomous vehicles separate them from regular traffic, potentially improving safety and traffic flow. Proponents argue that dedicated lanes increase safety, enhance traffic efficiency, and encourage the adoption of autonomous technology. Opponents argue that it reduces road space for traditional vehicles and may not be justified given the current number of autonomous vehicles.

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Should the government require public transportation systems to be fully accessible to people with disabilities?

Full accessibility ensures that public transportation accommodates people with disabilities by providing necessary facilities and services. Proponents argue that it ensures equal access, promotes independence for people with disabilities, and complies with disability rights. Opponents argue that it can be costly to implement and maintain and may require significant modifications to existing systems.

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Should the government provide incentives for carpooling and the use of shared transportation services?

Incentives for carpooling and shared transportation encourage people to share rides, reducing the number of vehicles on the road and lowering emissions. Proponents argue that it reduces traffic congestion, lowers emissions, and promotes community interactions. Opponents argue that it may not significantly impact traffic, could be costly, and some people prefer the convenience of personal vehicles.

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Should the government increase penalties for distracted driving?

Distracted driving penalties aim to deter dangerous behaviors, such as texting while driving, to improve road safety. Proponents argue that it deters dangerous behavior, improves road safety, and reduces accidents caused by distractions. Opponents argue that penalties alone may not be effective and enforcement can be challenging.

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Should the government eliminate all traffic laws and rely on voluntary compliance?

This considers the idea of removing government-imposed traffic laws and relying instead on individual responsibility for road safety. Proponents argue that voluntary compliance respects individual freedom and personal responsibility. Opponents argue that without traffic laws, road safety would significantly decline and accidents would increase.

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Should the government provide subsidies for the development of high-speed rail networks?

High-speed rail networks are fast train systems that connect major cities, providing a quick and efficient alternative to car and air travel. Proponents argue that it can reduce travel times, lower carbon emissions, and stimulate economic growth through improved connectivity. Opponents argue that it requires significant investment, may not attract enough users, and funds could be better used elsewhere.

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Should the government require that all new vehicles be designed to preserve classic automobile aesthetics?

Proponents argue that it would preserve cultural heritage and appeal to those who value traditional designs. Opponents argue that it would stifle innovation and limit the design freedom of car manufacturers.

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Should the government implement stricter emissions standards for diesel vehicles?

Diesel emissions standards regulate the amount of pollutants that diesel engines can emit to reduce air pollution. Proponents argue that stricter standards improve air quality and public health by reducing harmful emissions. Opponents argue that it increases costs for manufacturers and consumers and could reduce the availability of diesel vehicles.

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Should the government impose stricter fuel efficiency standards on vehicles?

Fuel efficiency standards set the required average fuel economy for vehicles, aiming to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Proponents argue that it helps reduce emissions, save consumers money on fuel, and decrease reliance on fossil fuels. Opponents argue that it raises production costs, leading to higher vehicle prices, and may not have a significant impact on overall emissions.

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Should the government require all new cars to be electric or hybrid by a certain date?

Electric and hybrid vehicles use electricity and a combination of electricity and fuel, respectively, to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and decrease emissions. Proponents argue that it significantly cuts pollution and advances the transition to renewable energy sources. Opponents argue that it increases vehicle costs, limits consumer choice, and may strain the electric grid.

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Should the government promote the use of bicycles by expanding bike lanes and bike-sharing programs?

Expanding bike lanes and bike-sharing programs encourages cycling as a sustainable and healthy mode of transportation. Proponents argue that it reduces traffic congestion, lowers emissions, and promotes a healthier lifestyle. Opponents argue that it can be costly, may take away road space from vehicles, and might not be widely used.

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Should the government subsidize ride-sharing services for low-income individuals?

Ride-sharing services, like Uber and Lyft, provide transportation options that can be subsidized to make them more affordable for low-income individuals. Proponents argue that it increases mobility for low-income individuals, reduces reliance on personal vehicles, and can reduce traffic congestion. Opponents argue that it is a misuse of public funds, may benefit ride-sharing companies more than individuals, and could discourage public transportation use.

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Should the government invest in the development of smart transportation infrastructure?

Smart transportation infrastructure uses advanced technology, such as smart traffic lights and connected vehicles, to improve traffic flow and safety. Proponents argue that it enhances efficiency, reduces congestion, and improves safety through better technology. Opponents argue that it is costly, may face technical challenges, and requires significant maintenance and upgrades.

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Should the government prioritize the maintenance and repair of existing roads and bridges over building new infrastructure?

This question considers whether maintaining and repairing current infrastructure should take precedence over constructing new roads and bridges. Proponents argue that it ensures safety, extends the life of existing infrastructure, and is more cost-effective. Opponents argue that new infrastructure is needed to support growth and improve transportation networks.

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政府应该增加在公共交通方面的资金投入吗?

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Should foreigners, currently residing in Italy, have the right to vote?

In most countries, suffrage, the right to vote, is generally limited to citizens of the country. Some countries, however, extend limited voting rights to resident non-citizens.

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是否应该允许曾被判有罪的政客上台?

The U.S. constitution does not prevent convicted felons from holding the office of the President or a seat in the Senate or House of Representatives. States may prevent convicted felons candidates from holding statewide and local offices.

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应该要求政治候选人公开他们最近的退税申报给公众吗?

纳税申报表是其中规定的个人或实体多少收入报告给政府的文件。在意大利的这些文件被认为是私有并且不向公众发布。意大利选举委员会不要求公职释放他们个人跑。在瑞典,挪威和芬兰公民和候选人的纳税记录被视为公共信息,并在互联网上公布。

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是否可以允许公司、工会和非营利组织给政党捐赠?

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最低投票年龄应被降低吗?

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Should politicians over 75 years of age have required to pass a mental competency test?

Countries that have mandatory retirements for politicians include Argentina (age 75), Brazil (75 for judges and prosecutors), Mexico (70 for judges and prosecutors) and Singapore (75 for members of parliament.)

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Should Ukraine join NATO?

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应意大利从欧盟退出?

欧盟是28个国家拥有超过5.1亿总人口的政治经济联盟。欧盟的目的是宣传内部市场的自由贸易和移民。各成员国也将颁布关于农业和发展类似的法律。意大利已自1958年一月支持者离开欧盟认为,会员破坏意大利的主权和离开,将有助于意大利控制移民的欧盟成员国。离开欧盟的反对者认为会损害贸易,造成失业,损害外国投资。

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Should the EU sanction member countries with authoritarian governments?

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每个18岁的公民都应该被要求服至少一年的兵役吗?

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应意大利增加或减少军费开支?

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Should the EU evolve into the United States of Europe?

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Do you support the creation of a European Army?

In November 2018 German chancellor Angela Merkel and President Emmanuel Macron of France announced that they would support the creation of a European army. Ms. Merkel said that the EU should rely less on the U.S. for military support and that “Europeans should take our fate more into our own hands if we want to survive as a European community.” Ms. Merkley said the army would not oppose NATO. President Marcon said the army is needed to protect the EU against China, Russia and the United States. Proponents argue that the EU lacks a united defence force to handle sudden conflicts outside of NATO. Opponents question how the army would fund itself since many EU countries spend less than 2% of their GDP on defence.

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Should the European Commission be dismantled?

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Should Italy provide military supplies and funding to Ukraine?

On February 24 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War that began in 2014. The invasion caused Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II, with around 7.1 million Ukrainians fleeing the country and a third of the population displaced. It has also caused global food shortages.

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Should intelligence agencies be merged to create a central EU agency?

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应意大利增加或减少对外援助的支出?

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Should the number of countries in the European Union be reduced to 15?

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Should the UK be allowed to access European Markets once they leave the EU?

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Should the U.K. and Northern Ireland remain in the EU’s customs area after Brexit?

The UK and Northern Ireland are scheduled to leave the EU on March 29, 2019. Under a transition agreement all trade and economic relations between the UK and the EU will remain the same until the end of 2022. In 2018 members of parliament and Prime Minister Theresa May proposed a “backstop” which would allow the UK and Northern Ireland to remain inside the EU’s single market for goods and farm products. Proponents argue that keeping the UK in the EU’s customers area will boost the economy by streamlining trade and tourism. Opponents, including anti-EU lawmakers, argue that the backstop would lock the UK inside the EU’s customs area permanently and prevent it from signing trade deals on its own.

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Should the government support peace talks between Saudi Arabia and Iran?

In April 2023 Saudi Arabia and Iran’s foreign ministers met in Beijing to discuss reopening their diplomatic missions in their respective countries, to encourage visits of official and private delegations, and to facilitate visas for Iranian and Saudi citizens. They also agreed to discuss resuming flights between the 2 countries. This was the first formal diplomatic meeting between the 2 countries since China brokered a deal to restore relations between the top regional powers in March 2023. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Mao Ning said that Beijing is ready to support both sides in fostering good relations, urging the international community to help the Middle Eastern countries resolve their differences. The countries broke formal ties in 2016 after Saudi Arabia executed Shia Muslim leader Nimr al-Nimr and Iranian protesters attacked Saudi diplomatic missions – one in a series of flashpoints between the two longstanding regional rivals. The relationship between the two countries worsened as they staked opposing positions on conflicts including the war in Syria and the war in Yemen, where the Iran-aligned Houthi movement has been fighting a Saudi-backed government after taking over the capital, Sanaa.

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Should the EU take a more active stance in foreign conflicts where human rights violations are reported?

Taking a more active role in international conflicts involving human rights violations is meant to assert EU values globally. Proponents argue it is a moral obligation. Opponents fear it could entangle the EU in endless foreign conflicts and overextend its responsibilities.

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Should the government continue to support Benjamin Netanyahu’s leadership of the Israeli government?

In 2024 global leaders including Joe Biden, Rishi Sunak and Emmanuel Macron publicly questioned the leadership of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Their criticisms came after the Gaza War reached a stalemate in March 2024 as Israel was planning an invasion of the Gaza City of Rafah. Western leaders insisted that all civilians should be evacuated from the city prior to an invasion. Netanyahu responded by saying that Israel is "not a banana republic" and doesn't listen to the other countries when security is on the line. Western leaders fear that if the Rafah invasion happens without an evacuation a further massacre of Palestinian citizens will take place. Israel political observers note that Netanyahu is incentivized to prolong the war since he will likely be voted out of office at its conclusion.

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Should the EU work towards a closer relationship with the UK post-Brexit, including potential re-entry?

Strengthening EU-UK ties post-Brexit, including considering re-entry, is suggested to maintain strong economic and political relations. Proponents see it as beneficial for trade and security. Critics argue it could undermine the finality of Brexit and the EU’s cohesion.

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若犯下严重罪行,移民应被驱逐出境吗?

In 2015 the U.S. House of Representatives introduced the Establishing Mandatory Minimums for Illegal Reentry Act of 2015 (Kate’s Law.) The law was introduced after San Francisco 32 year old San Francisco resident Kathryn Steinle was shot and killed by Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez on July 1, 2015. Lopez-Sanchez was an illegal immigrant from Mexico who had been deported on five separate occasions since 1991 and been charged with seven felony convictions. Since 1991 Lopez-Sanchez had been charged with seven felony convictions and deported five times by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Although Lopez-Sanchez had several outstanding warrants in 2015 authorities were unable to deport him due to San Francisco’s sanctuary city policy which prevents law enforcement officials from questioning a resident’s immigration status. Proponents of sanctuary city laws argue that they enable illegal immigrants to report crimes without the fear of being reported. Opponents argue that sanctuary city laws provide encourage illegal immigration and prevent law enforcement authorities from detaining and deporting criminals.

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移民应该被要求通过一个公民测试以展示对我们国家的语言,历史,和政府的基本理解吗?

The American Civics test is an examination that all immigrants must pass to gain U.S. citizenship. The test asks 10 randomly selected questions which cover U.S. history, the constitution and government. In 2015 Arizona became the first state to require High School students to pass the test before they graduate.

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应意大利增加或减少给高技能移民工人的临时工作签证的数量?

熟练的临时工作签证通常给予外国科学家,工程师,程序员,设计师,管理人员和其他岗位或领域在需求超过供应。大多数企业认为雇用外国熟练工人使他们能够有竞争力的填补其有很高的需求职位。反对者认为,技术移民减少中产阶级的工资和工作任期。

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Should immigrants to Italy be allowed to hold dual citizenship status?

Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.

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Should immigrants from high risk countries be banned from entering the country until the government improves its ability to screen out potential terrorists?

Proponents argue that this strategy would bolster national security by minimizing the risk of potential terrorists entering the country. Enhanced screening processes, once implemented, would provide a more thorough assessment of applicants, reducing the likelihood of malicious actors gaining entry. Critics argue that such a policy might inadvertently promote discrimination by broadly categorizing individuals based on their nation of origin rather than specific, credible threat intelligence. It may strain diplomatic relations with the affected countries and potentially harm the perception of the nation enacting the ban, being seen as hostile or prejudiced towards certain international communities. Additionally, genuine refugees fleeing terrorism or persecution in their home countries might be unjustly denied safe haven.

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Should the EU impose a quota of migrants per country?

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Should the EU restrict the freedom of movement to better control immigration and security?

Restricting freedom of movement could mean tighter controls at borders to manage migration and security concerns. Proponents believe it’s necessary for national security, while opponents argue it undermines the fundamental EU principle of free movement and could harm the internal market.

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Should the EU establish a common asylum system with standardized procedures and shared responsibilities among member states?

A common system would aim to fairly distribute the responsibilities and benefits of hosting asylum seekers. Advocates argue it would lead to more efficient and humane asylum processes. Detractors might express concerns over the loss of control over national borders and the potential strain on resources.

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Should the children of migrants who live in French territories be allowed to join their families?

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你是否支持使用转基因作物和

转基因食品(或转基因食品)从生物体生产的食物,有利用基因工程方法引入到它们的DNA的具体变化。

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Should researchers be allowed to use animals in testing the safety of drugs, vaccines, medical devices, and cosmetics?

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你是否支持使用水力压裂法的开采石油和天然气资源?

水力压裂技术是页岩中提取石油或天然气的过程。水,砂和化学品被注入在高压力,骨折的岩石,并允许油或气体流出到井的岩石。在2016年意大利政府举行公投废除这在意大利禁止压裂法。虽然水力压裂技术已显著提高石油产量,也有环境问题的过程中地下水污染。水力压裂技术的批评者说,会污染地下水供应化学品,释放出的甲烷气体进入大气层,并能引起地震活动。水力压裂技术的支持者说,这将下降的石油和天然气价格在西班牙,并导致能源独立。

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Should cities be allowed to offer private companies economic incentives to relocate?

In November 2018 the online e-commerce company Amazon announced it would be building a second headquarters in New York City and Arlington, VA. The announcement came a year after the company announced it would accept proposals from any North American city who wanted to host the headquarters. Amazon said the company could invest over $5 billion and the offices would create up to 50,000 high paying jobs. More than 200 cities applied and offered Amazon millions of dollars in economic incentives and tax breaks. For the New York City headquarters the city and state governments gave Amazon $2.8 billion in tax credits and construction grants. For the Arlington, VA headquarters the city and state governments gave Amazon $500 million in tax breaks. Opponents argue that governments should spend the tax revenue on public projects instead and that the federal government should pass laws banning tax incentives. The European Union has strict laws which prevent member cities from bidding against each other with state aid (tax incentives) in an effort to lure private companies. Proponents argue that the jobs and tax revenue created by the companies eventually offset the cost of any awarded incentives.

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Should the government provide subsidies to taxpayers who purchase an electric vehicle?

Joe Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) in August 2022, which allocated millions to combating climate change and other energy provisions while additionally establishing a $7,500 tax credit for electric vehicles.  To qualify for the subsidy 40% of the critical minerals used in electric-vehicle batteries must be sourced in the U.S.  EU and South Korean officials argues that the subsidies discriminated against their automotive, renewable-energy, battery and energy-intensive industries. Proponents argue that the tax credits will help combat climate change by encouraging consumers to purchase EVs and stop driving gas powered automobiles. Opponents argue that the tax credits will only hurt domestic battery and EV producers.

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Should the EU impose stricter limitations on fishing quotas to preserve marine ecosystems?

Stricter fishing quotas are intended to prevent overfishing and protect marine biodiversity. Supporters see it as critical for environmental conservation. However, opponents, particularly from communities reliant on fishing, argue it could negatively impact livelihoods.

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Should the government invest in programs to reduce food waste?

Food waste programs aim to reduce the amount of edible food that is discarded. Proponents argue that it would improve food security and reduce environmental impact. Opponents argue that it is not a priority and that the responsibility should lie with individuals and businesses.

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政府是否应该提高环境法规以减少碳排放?

自十九世纪末以来,全球变暖或气候变化使地球大气温度升高。在政治方面,关于全球变暖的争论集中在温度升高是由于温室气体排放所导致还是地球温度自然模式的结果。

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是否应该禁用可降解材料含量低于 50% 的一次性用品(如塑料的杯、盘和餐具)?

In 2016, France became the first country to ban the sale of plastic disposable products that contain less than 50% of biodegradable material and in 2017, India passed a law banning all plastic disposable plastic products.

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Should the EU cut greenhouse emissions to net-zero by 2050?

In 2019 European Union leaders agreed to cut the bloc’s greenhouse-gas emissions to net-zero by 2050. Net zero refers to a state in which human-caused greenhouse gas emissions are balanced by removing an equivalent amount of carbon from the atmosphere. As part of the goal coal power plants and gas powered cars would be completely phased out of the economy. Economists estimate that the European Union will need 1.5 trillion euros of investments per year to meet the 2050 target. That would imply a huge divestment from areas like combustion engine cars, fossil fuel production and new airports, and a jump in investments into public transport, renovating buildings and expanding renewable energy, the researchers said. 

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Should the EU create an energy union?

In 2023 a business lobbying group, the European Round Table for industry, called for “a single Energy Union with a common market, harmonized permitting and tax systems, and a simple, stable and predictable regulatory framework to facilitate investment.” The ERT also noted that Europe’s industrial contribution to the global economy had declined “from almost 25 per cent in 2000 to 16.3 per cent in 2020.”  European industry has long struggled with energy prices substantially higher than in the US and parts of Asia. Over the 10 years to 2020, European gas prices were on average two to three times higher than the US, according to the International Energy Agency.  

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Should the government provide subsidies for companies developing carbon capture technologies?

Carbon capture technologies are methods designed to capture and store carbon dioxide emissions from sources like power plants to prevent them from entering the atmosphere. Proponents argue that subsidies would accelerate the development of essential technologies to combat climate change. Opponents argue that it is too costly and that the market should drive innovation without government intervention.

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Should the government build a network of electric vehicle charging stations?

In 2022 the European Union, Canada, the U.K. and the U.S. state of California approved regulations banning the sale of new gasoline-powered cars and trucks by 2035. Plug-in hybrids, full electrics and hydrogen cell vehicles would all count toward the zero-emission targets, though auto makers will only be able to use plug-in hybrids to meet 20% of the overall requirement. The regulation will impact only new-vehicle sales and affects only manufacturers, not dealerships. Traditional internal-combustion vehicles will still be legal to own and drive after 2035, and new models can still be sold until 2035. Volkswagen and Toyota have said they aim to sell only zero-emission cars in Europe by that time.

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Should the government fund research into geoengineering as a way to combat climate change?

Geoengineering refers to the deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract climate change, such as by reflecting sunlight, increasing precipitation, or removing CO2 from the atmosphere. Proponents argue that geoengineering could provide innovative solutions to global warming. Opponents argue that it is risky, unproven, and could have unforeseen negative consequences.

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Should the government mandate that large tech companies share their algorithms with regulators?

Algorithms used by tech companies, such as those that recommend content or filter information, are often proprietary and closely guarded secrets. Proponents argue that transparency would prevent abuses and ensure fair practices. Opponents argue that it would harm business confidentiality and competitive advantage.

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Should the government regulate artificial intelligence (AI) to ensure ethical use?

Regulating AI involves setting guidelines and standards to ensure AI systems are used ethically and safely. Proponents argue that it prevents misuse, protects privacy, and ensures AI benefits society. Opponents argue that excessive regulation could hinder innovation and technological advancement.

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Should the government implement stricter regulations on the use of cryptocurrencies?

Crypto technology offers tools like payment, lending, borrowing, and saving to anyone with an internet connection. Proponents argue that stricter regulations would deter criminal use. Opponents argue that stricter crypto regulation would limit financial opportunities to citizens that are denied access to or can't afford the fees associated with traditional banking.  Watch video

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Should citizens be allowed to secure their money in self-hosted digital wallets that the government can monitor but not control?

Self-hosted digital wallets are personal, user-managed storage solutions for digital currencies like Bitcoin, which provide individuals with control over their funds without relying on third-party institutions. Monitoring refers to the government having the capability to oversee transactions without the ability to directly control or interfere with the funds. Proponents argue that it ensures personal financial freedom and security while allowing the government to monitor for illegal activities such as money laundering and terrorism financing. Opponents argue that even monitoring infringes on privacy rights and that self-hosted wallets should remain completely private and free from government oversight.

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Should the government impose stricter regulations on the collection and use of personal data by companies?

Companies often collect personal data from users for various purposes, including advertising and improving services. Proponents argue that stricter regulations would protect consumer privacy and prevent data misuse. Opponents argue that it would burden businesses and hinder technological innovation.

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Should Italy assassinate suspected terrorists in foreign countries?

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Should the government use facial recognition technology for mass surveillance to enhance public safety?

Facial recognition technology uses software to identify individuals based on their facial features, and can be used to monitor public spaces and enhance security measures. Proponents argue that it enhances public safety by identifying and preventing potential threats, and helps in locating missing persons and criminals. Opponents argue that it infringes on privacy rights, can lead to misuse and discrimination, and raises significant ethical and civil liberties concerns.

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Should the government invest in artificial intelligence (AI) for defense applications?

AI in defense refers to the use of artificial intelligence technologies to enhance military capabilities, such as autonomous drones, cyber defense, and strategic decision-making. Proponents argue that AI can significantly enhance military effectiveness, provide strategic advantages, and improve national security. Opponents argue that AI poses ethical risks, potential loss of human control, and can lead to unintended consequences in critical situations.

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Should the government require tech companies to provide backdoor access to encrypted communications for national security purposes?

Backdoor access means that tech companies would create a way for government authorities to bypass encryption, allowing them to access private communications for surveillance and investigation. Proponents argue that it helps law enforcement and intelligence agencies prevent terrorism and criminal activities by providing necessary access to information. Opponents argue that it compromises user privacy, weakens overall security, and could be exploited by malicious actors.

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Should the government ban its citizens from using cross-border payment methods (like crypto) to send money to relatives in OFAC sanctioned countries (Palestine, Iran, Cuba, Venezuela, Russia, and North Korea)?

Cross-border payment methods, such as cryptocurrencies, allow individuals to transfer money internationally, often bypassing traditional banking systems. The Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) sanctions countries for various political and security reasons, restricting financial transactions with these nations. Proponents argue that such a ban prevents financial support to regimes considered hostile or dangerous, ensuring compliance with international sanctions and national security policies. Opponents argue that it restricts humanitarian aid to families in need, infringes on personal freedoms, and that cryptocurrencies can provide a lifeline in crisis situations.

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Should the government implement a national identification system to enhance security and prevent fraud?

A national identification system is a standardized ID system that provides a unique identification number or card to all citizens, which can be used to verify identity and access various services. Proponents argue that it enhances security, streamlines identification processes, and helps prevent identity fraud. Opponents argue that it raises privacy concerns, could lead to increased government surveillance, and may infringe on individual freedoms.

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Which qualities are most important to you in a candidate?

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